threshold definition ap psychology

The absolute threshold for vision is the smallest amount of light that is seen by the human eye. the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. For smell, it is the slightest hint of a scent a person is able to detect when in a room. Determining the absolute threshold for vision might involve measuring the distance at which a participant can detect the presence of a candle flame in the dark.

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmare, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling sleep, and are seldom remembered, a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. An example of this might be measured at what levels participants can detect the ticking sound of a clock. in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. Most research psychologists today agree with 1) but not with 2).

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Each sense has its own level of absolute threshold, and for each person it can vary. assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity. in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally--naturally and automatically--triggers a response. An example of touch absolute threshold is the point in which a person begins to feel the heat from fire. Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation. Secondly, from a philosophical point of view, psychophysics shows that physical reality and psychological reality are not identical. However, it is also possible that you encounter a broader question on the topic of Sensation and Perception, like this one: Describe the psychological concept of expectancy or set. the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state, periodic, natural, and reversible loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation, false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus, burst of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity during Stage 2 sleep, the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep (stage 4), recurring problems in falling or staying asleep, a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. J Gen Physiol. All material within this site is the property of the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports. a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings. (Also called just noticeable difference or jnd.) theorist who claimed individuals went through a series of stages in the process of moral development. An example of this would be to measure the smallest amount of perfume that a subject is able to smell in a large room. That is sensory adaptation. We are gradually updating these posts and will remove this disclaimer when this post is updated. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain, the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations, the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones, according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father, counterpart to the Oedipus complex for females, the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos, according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved, in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality, defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated (ie thumb sucking), psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Think of an electric burner on a stove. in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth. An absolute threshold is the smallest amount of stimulation needed for a person to detect that stimulus 50% of the time.


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